Why does lithium ion battery pack need BMS board protection ?

Abstract:

BMS board protection is conducted by a custom designed circuit board, it keeps the battery in a safe status during charging/discharging.

Lithium ion battery is a portable energy unit, it’s made of chemical materials which designed and put in a limited space shell.

The specified chemical features and physical structure bring a risk of exploration and burning, so it need custom protections.

Risks from chemical features

After learned the lithium ion battery cell structure , you will know that the lithium ion battery cell is mainly made of anode chemical material pole, cathode chemical pole, seperator, electrolyte, shell.

The electrolyte contains organic solvent and it’s heat stability is not very good, so the if the lithium ion battery themperature rised too much when overcharged, over discharged, short circuit, or in a high temperature working environment, it may cause thermal runway and swelling then cause a exploration and burning.

So it need BMS board protection to prevent possiable chemical risks.

Risks from physical structure

When the lithium ion battery is overcharged, overdischarged, crushed, the seperator may broke which will cause a internal short circuit then swelling and then cause a exploration and burning.

In this case, the BMS board protection can prevent the lithium battery from overcharged and overdischarged, but it not work for preventing physical crush.

BMS board protection connection illustration

Below diagram is a simple illustration of BMS board connection with the lithium ion battery, each cell will be monitored by the IC.

The IC will monitor the voltage of each cell to prevent from overcharging and overdischarging.

A NTC or thermal controller will monitor the temperature of battery cell/pack and BMS board to prevent from over temperature.

Mosfets are used to control block/conduct the output/input current.

BMS Board Protection

BMS board protection type

BMS has hardareware protection and software protectioin.

Hardware protection like PTC fuse or thermal controller, they can cut off the circuit directly by themselves.

Software protection mainly indicates the protection monitored and conduct by the IC, ther are programed code/software along witht the IC.

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